## Step 1 Review

Check out this Video about Multiplication, Commutativity and Distribution properties.

From Purple Math:

Distributive Property

The Distributive Property is easy to remember, if you recall that "multiplication distributes over addition". Formally, they write this property as "a(b + c) = ab + ac". In numbers, this means, that 2(3 + 4) = 2×3 + 2×4. Any time they refer in a problem to using the Distributive Property, they want you to take something through the parentheses (or factor something out); any time a computation depends on multiplying through a parentheses (or factoring something out), they want you to say that the computation used the Distributive Property.

• Why is the following true? 2(x + y) = 2x + 2y

Since they distributed through the parentheses, this is true by the Distributive Property.

• Use the Distributive Property to rearrange: 4x – 8

The Distributive Property either takes something through a parentheses or else factors something out. Since there aren't any parentheses to go into, you must need to factor out of. Then the answer is "By the Distributive Property, 4x – 8 = 4(x – 2)"

"But wait!" you say. "The Distributive Property says multiplication distributes over addition, not subtraction!  What gives?" You make a good point. This is one of those times when it's best to be flexible. You can either view the contents of the parentheses as the subtraction of a positive number ("x – 2") or else as the addition of a negative number ("x + (–2)"). In the latter case, it's easy to see that the Distributive Property applies, because you're still adding; you're just adding a negative.

The other two properties come in two versions each: one for addition and the other for multiplication. (Note that the Distributive Property refers to both addition and multiplication, too, but to both within just one rule.)

Associative Property

The word "associative" comes from "associate" or "group";the Associative Property is the rule that refers to grouping. For addition, the rule is "a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c"; in numbers, this means
2 + (3 + 4) = (2 + 3) + 4. For multiplication, the rule is "a(bc) = (ab)c"; in numbers, this means 2(3×4) = (2×3)4. Any time they refer to the Associative Property, they want you to regroup things; any time a computation depends on things being regrouped, they want you to say that the computation uses the Associative Property.   Copyright © Elizabeth Stapel 2000-2011 All Rights Reserved

• Rearrange, using the Associative Property: 2(3x)

They want you to regroup things, not simplify things. In other words, they do not want you to say "6x". They want to see the following regrouping: (2×3)x

• Simplify 2(3x), and justify your steps.

In this case, they do want you to simplify, but you have to tell why it's okay to do... just exactly what you've always done. Here's how this works:

 2(3x) original (given) statement (2×3)x by the Associative Property 6x simplification (2×3 = 6)
• Why is it true that 2(3x) = (2×3)x?

Since all they did was regroup things, this is true by the Associative Property.

Commutative Property

The word "commutative" comes from "commute" or "move around", so the Commutative Property is the one that refers to moving stuff around. For addition, the rule is "a + b = b + a"; in numbers, this means 2 + 3 = 3 + 2. For multiplication, the rule is "ab = ba"; in numbers, this means 2×3 = 3×2. Any time they refer to the Commutative Property, they want you to move stuff around; any time a computation depends on moving stuff around, they want you to say that the computation uses the Commutative Property.

• Use the Commutative Property to restate "3×4×x" in at least two ways.

They want you to move stuff around, not simplify. In other words, the answer is not "12x"; the answer is any two of the following:

4 × 3 × x, 4 × x × 3, 3 × x × 4, x × 3 × 4, and x × 4 × 3

• Why is it true that 3(4x) = (4x)(3)?

Since all they did was move stuff around (they didn't regroup), this is true by the Commutative Property.

Your brain likes repitition to move information into long term memory.

Watch, Review and Look Over your Math Notes from our whole group math lesson.

factor: a number that is multiplied by another number to get a product product: the answer when 2 factors are multiplied 